Table of Contents

1 Important Tribal Revolts

Name of the Revolt Leader Year Region Remark / Significance
Paharias   1778 Rajmahal Hills against British land expansion
Bhil Revolt   1817-19 Western Ghats against Company Rule
Ho Uprising Raja Parahat 1827   against occupation of Singhbhum (in Chhotanagpur plateau) by British
Ahom Revolt   1828-33 Assam against non-fulfilment of promises by Company after end of Burmese War
        suprressed by dividing the kingdom
Khasi Revolt Tirath Singh (Nunklow ruler) 1830s Khasi Hills against occupation of hills
Singhphos Rebellion   1830s    
Kol uprising Buddho Bhagat 1831 Chhotanagpur against expansion of British and land transfer to outsiders
Santhal Rebellion Sido and Kanhu 1855-56 Bihar & Jharkhand against zamindari, moneylenders, company
Naikada   1860s MP, Gujarat against caste hindus and british
Kharwar   1870s Bihar against revenue settlement activities
Ulgulan (Munda Uprising) Birsa Munda 1899-1900 Jharkhand, Bihar, against zamindari, moneylenders, forest contractors
        ulgulan means revolution
Bastar   1910    
Forest Satyagraha Chenchu tribe 1920s Guntur, Andhra Pradesh  
Forest Satyagraha Karwars of Palamau 1930s Palamau, Bihar  
Naga Movement, Jadonang 1920s Manipur (present-day Nagaland) making a Naga raj (an anti-British movement after the Kuki revolt)
Zeliasong Movement &        
Heraka Cult Rani Gaidinliu 1930s    
Gond Uprising   1940s   Gond-dharma

2 Social Movements in Punjab

In Punjab, socio-religious movements started after the annexation of Punjab in 1849. Some came from outside such as the Brahmo Samaj, others developed inside.

Name of the Movement Leaders Year Region Intent Literature
Kuka (Namdhari movement) Balak Singh, Ram Singh   Bhaini, Punjab establish Sikh sovereignty Nava Hindustan, Sacha Marg, Satyug
        simple life, civil disobedience, cow protection  
        Anand ceremony for marriage, Khanda Pahul  
Nirankari Movement Baba Dayal (a gold merchant)     restore purity of the faith  
        re-emphasized belief in the Nirankar – the Formless one  
        condemned idol worship, pilgrimage, brahmanical rituals  
        coined "Dhan Nirankar", "Deh Dhari Sab Khwar"  
        founded Nirankari Darbar at Rawalpindi in 1851  
Radhasoami Shiv Dayal, a banker from Agra   Agra God as a union between soul (radha) and master (soami)  
        Surat Shabd Yoga  
  Jaimal Singh   estd. Beas dera do not keep Guru Granth Sahib, do not have kirtan  
Singh Sabha Movement Thakur Singh Sandhawalia 1873 estd. Amritsar to put a lid on rapid proselytisation of Sikhs  
  Giani Gian Singh        

3 Commissions

3.1 Education

Year Committee/Commission Head/Chariman Viceroy at the time Salient Features Outcomes
1781 Calcutta Madrassah   Warren Hastings to provide educated Indians to work in Company courts  
1791 Sanskrit College, Varanasi Jonathan Duncan ? to provide educated Indians to work in Company courts  
1813 Charter Act 1813     1 lakh annually t be spent on education of Indians Anglicist-orientalist controversity – what content and in which language?
        Rammohan Roy was in support of English as medium of instruction In 1835 – William bentick decided in favour of English education than native languages
1854 Education Despatch (Wood's Despatch) Sir Charles Wood (later 2nd Secretary of State) Lord Dalhousie creation of educational departments in provinces; vernacular in primary schools, anglo-vernacular in secondary school, english in college creation of universities
          govt supported education of girls
1882 Commission on Indian Education (Hunter Commission) W. W. Hunter Lord Ripon local bodies should manage primary schools; govt schools should be minimum with most falling under private hands while receiving performance based grants-in-aid  
1902 Universities Commission Thomas Raleigh Lord Curzon universities should assume teaching role (earlier administrative only) Universities Act 1904
        separate dept. of education at centre estb in 1910
1917 Sadler Commission Sadler Lord Chelmsford secondary education managed by separte boards and not by universities 7 new universities
        duration of degrees set at 3 years Kashi Vidyapeet and Jamia Milia Islamia estd
          University course divided into pass course and honours
1924         establishment of inter-University Board and beginning of inter-college and inter-uni activities
1929 Hartog Committee     consolidation and improvement of primary education; selective system of admissions to universities; diversified courses  
1937 Wardha Scheme of Basic Education Dr. Zakir Hussain      
1944 Sergeant Plan of Education     establishment of elementary and high schools; universal compulsory education for ages 6-11; 2 types of high schools – academic and vocational  

3.1.1 Indian

Year Event
1937 All India Education Conference at Wardha
  Dr. Zakir Hussain Committee appointed – gave 2 reports
1945 Sevagram Conference – concept of Nai Talim emerged
1946 B. G. Kher conference

3.1.2 Anglicist-Orientalist Controversies

Anglicist Orientalist
Western literature Oriental literature
Missionaries as the management Indian management
Western sciences in English Western sciences in Indian languages
  further controversy – classical or modern languages?
  i.e. Sanskrit/Arabic or Hindi/Urdu/Punjabi/Gujarati
Downards Filtration Theory Company should take responsibility

3.2 Civil Services Commissions

3.3 Famine Commissions

During company rule, there was not famine code. A famine for the company meant more profits by selling grains at higher prices in famine-struck areas after procuring them from non-famine areas. Post-1857 when the Crown took over, famine committees were appointed for the first time.

Year Region Name Result
1860-61 Delhi-Agra Baird Smith Committee none
1866 Odisha, Bengal, Bihar George Campbell  
1876-78 Great Famine Strachey Commission Recommended that 1) able-bodied persons be given employment instead of cash and kind relief
  (Madras, UP, Punjab, Delhi, Bombay) (came from London in 1878) 2) cash and kind relief should be given only to old and crippled
      3) Cattle must be migrated as drought sets in
      4) provinces responsible for relief, centre only in extreme cases
      recommendations not accepted by Secretary of state
1883     Provisional Famine Code introduced by Lord Ripon
1896-97 Central Provinces James Lyal Commission  
1899-1900   Anthony Macdonald Commission relief by PPP
1942 Bengal Famine Wood Commission  

3.4 Education


4 Unions

4.1 Trade Unions

1875 First Factory Commission  
1881 First Factory Act children less than 7 not to work, hours fixed for children up to 12, dangerous machinery to be fenced
1891 Second Factory Act 11 hours a day fixed for women with 1.5 hour interval, children up to 12 not to work
1918 Madras Trade Union B. P. Wadia
1920 AITUC President Lala Lajpat Rai, imp leader N. M. Joshi
1926 Trade Union Act  
1929 AITUF Founded by N. M. Joshi
1935-38 AITUC and AITUF merged  
  M. N. Roy founded Indian Labour Federation  

4.2 Farmers Unions

Year System in Region Formulated by under Governor General System
1793 Permanent Settlement Bengal, Bihar, Odisha Sir John Shore Lord Cornwallis Zamindar collected and paid 89% state share
1820 Ryotwari Central and South India Captain Alexander Read and Thomas Munroe Elphinstone in Bombay Individual paid to government
1823 Mahalwari System North India (Punjab, Agra, Awadh) Robert Merttins Bird and Holt Mackenzie Lord Hastings (not Warren Hastings) Village community responsible for payment through lambardar
1936 AIKS founded by Shahjahan Ahmad in post-1929 depression

4.3 States' Peoples Organisations

5 Relations with Princely States

Period Policy Explanation
1740-65 Company's Struggle for Equality  
1765-1813 Ring Fence Policy  
1813-1857 Policy of Subordinate Isolation  
1858-1935 Policy of Subordinate Union  
1935-1947 Policy of Equal Federation  

5.1 Subsidiary Alliances

Introduced by Lord Wellesley in 1798.

Subsidiary Alliances had unofficially been in fashion since 1740 when French Governor Dupleix first used these; they were unofficially used by the British and finally a clear name and doctrine was laid under Wellesley.

6 Communism in India

1920 CPI founded by M N Roy in Tashkent
1920-24 Post-war conditions and rise of trade unions facilitated spread of communism
1922-23 Peshawar / Silk Letter Conspiracy Case
1924 Kanpur Conspiracy Case
1924 CPI founded by Satyabhagat in India
1929-33 Meerut Conspiracy Case against leftist trade union leaders: 31 charged, 27 convicted
  including Dange, Joglekar, Usman, Muzaffar Ahmad
  and Englishmen Philip, Spratt and Ben Bradley
1936 Anti-Imperealist People's Front (Dutt-Bradley Report)
  Congress Socialist Party formed to include communists within Congress fold
1939 Forward Bloc of S. C. Bose
1939 Bolshevik Party of India by M. D. Mazumdar
1940 M. N. Roy's Radical Democratic Party (not a Marxist party)

Author: likeaflower

Created: 2018-07-07 Sat 21:30

Emacs 24.5.1 (Org mode 8.2.10)