Table of Contents

1 Timeline

Year Event
1893 Left for South Africa
1915 Returned to India
1916 attended first public event at BHU inauguration
1917 Champaran Satyagraha
1918 Ahmedabad Mill Workers Strike
1918 Kheda Satyagraha
1919 Rowlatt Satyagraha
1920 Non-Cooperation movement launched
1922 movement called off, Gandhi arrested

1.1 Non Cooperation Movement 1920

Following the Massacre at Jallianwala Bagh, the 1919 session of Congress was held in Amritsar. Motlilal Nehru was elected the President.

A special session of the Congress was held in 1920 at Calcutta in which Lala Lajpat Rai was elected the president. Gandhi made clear his plan of launching a Non-Cooperation movement which would urge the people to adopt swadeshi principles and habits, hand-spinnning, weaving, removal of untouhability, etc. People would be told to avoid government offices, courts, schools, etc.

The Non-Cooperation Movement was launched in the annual session in December of the same year. Ambica Charan Mazumdar presided over this 1920 Nagpur Session in which Non-Coopeation Movement was launched.

C. R. Das moved the main resolution in that session. He and several other prominent lawyers like Nehru (father and son), Prasad, Patel, Jayakar, Kithlu, Rajagopalachari, Asaf Ali, etc. gave up their legal practice.

Jawaharlal Nehru encouraged the formation of Kisan Sabhas to rouse the peasants as an important pillar of the National Movement.

Lala Lajpat Rai was initially not in favour of it (due to boycott of schools) but later actively supported it and in the end was against its withdrawal.

Kishan Singh and Mota Singh called for no-revenue movements in Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur and headed the Babbar Akali group, a breakaway faction of the Akali movement for gurudwara reforms.

Govind Ballabh Pant, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Purshottamdas Tandon and Ganesh Shankar Vidhyarthi started their political careers as a part of this movement.

Premchand resigned from his post as a government schoolteacher and began contributing to the journal Aaj. His writings like Premsharam, Rangbhumi, etc. reflect the values of this movement.

1.2 Civil Disobedience Movement 1930

Civil Disobedience was formally launched on April 6, 1930 when Gandhi lifted some salt at Dandi as a gesture of breaking the salt law.

1.2.1 Parallel Salt Marches and other Acts of Defiance

Leader Location
C. Rajagopalachari salt march – Tanjore coast of Tamil Nadu (Trichonopoly to Vedaranniyam)
K. Kelappan salt march – Calicut to Payanneer (Kerala)
Gopabandhu Chaudari salt march – Orissa (Balasore, Cuttack, Puri)
P. Krishna Pillai faced lathicharge at Calicut Beach, later founded Kerala Communist Movement
Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan led the Khudai Khidmatgars (red shirts) in NWFP
Sarojini Naidu march towards Dharasana Salt Works
Surya Sen Chittagong Armoury Act
Abbas Tayabji took over the movement after Gandhi's arrest, he too was arrested soon
G. D. Birla These industrialists supported the movement, their support declined after September
Jamnadas Bajaj  
Homi Modi  
Walchand Hirachand  
Lalji Naranji  
Purshottamdas Thakurdas <– had opposed Non-Cooperation movement 10 years earlier
Lala Sri Ram  
S. C. Bose set up rival organisations for conducting CDM
J. M. Sengupta  
Vithalbhai Patel  
Santi and Suniti Chaudhary assasinated the district magistrate of Tippera (Tripura)
Mohammad Yasin Khan (Punjab) organised the Meos (semi-tribal peasants with Islamic leaning) to protest against Maharaja Jaisingh Sawai's hike in reveue, begar, reservation of forests
Madan Mohan Malaviya founded the Congress Nationalist Party
N. V. Rama Naidu & N. C. Ranga forest satyagraha in Nellore
M. N. Roy socialist ideas, no-tax campaign in Awadh

Author: likeaflower

Created: 2018-06-23 Sat 17:28

Emacs 24.5.1 (Org mode 8.2.10)