The Press in India

Table of Contents

The first press came to India in 1556 aboard a Portugese vessel.

Newspapers first started under the British. The Bengal Gazette by James Augustus Hickey in 1780 was the first Indian newspaper; it was shut down in 1782.

1 Evolution of Legal Framework regarding the Press

Development Year Ruler Effect
Censorship of Press Act 1799 Lord Wellesley name of printer, editor, propreitor to be printed
      all materials should be submitted for pre-censorship
      violation was punished by deportation
Censorship of Press Act repealed 1818 Lord Hastings  
Licensing Regulations 1823 John Adams (acting, later full GG) license to be purchased to set up press
      fine of Rs. 400 + press attached in case of violation
      license could be revoked at any time
      Roy's Mirat-ul-Akhbar put stopped under this
Press freed regulations 1835 Charles Metcalfe (acting GG)  
    "freer of Press in Inida"  
Licensing Act 1857 Lord Canning introduced as temporary provisions during revolt
      never withdrawn
      all books needed to be submitted to the government before publication
Registration Act 1867 Lord John Lawrence revived the restrictions of Adams
124-A of IPC 1870 Lord Mayo 'exciting feelings of disaffection' a criminal offence
Vernacular Press Act 1878 Lord Lytton precensorship for vernacular newspapers
      Ishwarchander Vidyasagar's Som Prakash shut down by this
Vernacular Press Act repealed 1882 Lord Ripon  
153-A of IPC 1898    
Newspapers Act 1908 Lord Minto II revived the worst in Vernacular Press Act – registration & confiscation
      'incitement to offences' could be tried for murder
      put Tilak in prison and off to Mandalay
Indian Press Act 1910   re-apply for licenses: Rs. 500 to 2,000
      fine: Rs. 1,000 to 10,000
Tej Bahadur Sapru Committee 1921   acts of 1908, 1910 repealed
    Tej Bahadur Sapru was Law Member Press Freedom revived
Indian Press Emergency Act 1931    
Press Enquiry Committee 1947   Free India to have freedom of press, implied by Art 19(1)(a)
    Sir Ganganath Jha  

2 Punjabi Freedom Fighters and Associated publications

Person Publications contributed to Important Works
Lala Lajpat Rai The Tribune Arya Samaj
  Vande Matram Unhappy India
  Punjabee England's Debt to India
  The People The USA: A Hindu Impression
  Adhikar Young India
Bhagat Singh Kirti Why I am an atheist?
  Veer Arjun Letter to Batukeshwar Dutt
    Letter to father
    The Red Pamphlet

3 Important Newspapers

Name of the Publication Contributors Language Remarks/Significance
Bengal Gazette James Augustus Hickey English  
India Gazette Henry Louis Vivian Derozio English  
Samvad Kunmudi Rammohan Roy Bengali  
Mirat-ul-Akhbar Rammohan Roy Persian first persian newspaper, banned under Licensing Regulations 1823 by John Adams
Banga-duta Rammohan Roy, Dwarkanath Tagore and others English, Bengali, Persian, Hindi  
Som Parkash Ishvarchandar Vidyasagar   shut down under Vernacular Press Act
Rast Goftar (The Truth Teller) Dadabhai Naoroji English, Gujarati  
Bengalee Surendranath Banerjee    
Amrita Bazar Patrika Ghosh Brothers Bengali, later English  
Bangadarshana Bankim Chandra Chatterji    
The Hindu G. S. Aiyer, Viragavachari, Subba Rao Pundit    
The Tribune Dyal Singh Majithia    
New India Annie Besant    
Commonweal Annie Besant    
Sudharak Gopal Krishna Gokhale    
Kesari Tilak, Chiplunkar, Agarkar Marathi  
Mahratha Tilak English  
Paridasak Bipin Chandra Pal    
Punjabee Lala Lajpat Rai    
Vande Mataram Lala Lajpat Rai Urdu  
Adhikar Lala Lajpat Rai    
The People Lala Lajpat Rai    
Yugantar Barindra Kumar Ghosh, Bhupendranath Dutt    
Sandhya Brahmabandhab Upadhaya    
Indian Sociologist (London) Shyamji Krishnavarma    
Bande Mataram (Paris) Madame Bikaji Cama    
Talvar (Berlin) Birendranath Chattopadhaya    
Free Hindustan (Vancouver) Taraknath Das    
Ghadr (San Francisco) Ghadr Party    
Reshwa Ajit Singh    
The Hindustan Times K. M. Pannikar (part of the Akali Dal Movement)    
Leader Madan Mohan Malaviya English  
Kirti Santosh Singh, Bhagat Singh    
Veer Arjun Bhagat Singh    
Bahishkrit Bharat B. R. Ambedkar    
Kudi Arasu E. V. Ramaswamy Naicker (Periyar) Tamil  

Author: likeaflower

Created: 2018-06-23 Sat 18:05

Emacs 24.5.1 (Org mode 8.2.10)