Important Topics

Table of Contents

1 In the news

1.1 Indices 2018

Creator Name Measures Position of India Previous Position BRICS SAARC
World Bank Ease of Doing Business   100/190 130    
World Bank Starting a Business          
World Bank Index of Investor Protection          
Transparency International Corruption Perception Index   76/168      
Save the Children Child Development Index          
Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index          
Charities Aid Foundation Were to born Index          
UNDP Education Index          
UNDP Gender Empowerment Measure          
UNDP Gender Inequality Index reproductive health, empowerment, economic activity        
UNDP HDI Health, education, wealth        
UNDP Human Poverty Index          
The Access Initiative (TAI) & the World Resources Institute (WRI) Environmental Democracy Index          
World Economic Forum (WEF) Global Gender Gap Index          
WEF Environmental Performance Index          
WEF Global Competitive Index          
WEF Network Readiness Index          
WEF Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index          
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Global Hunger Index          
Cornell, INSEAD, WIPO Global Innovation Index          
Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) Global Peace Index          
Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) Global Terrorism Index          
Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index          
OECD Development Center Social Institutions and Gender Index          

1.2 Forums & Meets

Name Year Host Agenda Outcomes

1.3 Female Fighter Pilots (Inspector Cooperatives 2018)

First batch of 3 Indian fighter pilots:

  1. Avani Chaturvedi – MP
  2. Bhavana Kanth – Bihar
  3. Mohana Singh – Rajasthan

1.4 Sports

1.4.1 Fifa World Cup

Year Host
2018 Russia
2022 Qatar

1.4.2 Cricket World Cup

Year Host Winner
2011 India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh India
2015 Australia Australia
2019 England & Wales ---

2 Geography

2.1 Latitudes

2.1.1 Tropic of Cancer

  1. Asia – Passes through 8 countries
    1. UAE
    2. Saudi Arabia
    3. Oman
    4. India
    5. Bangladesh
    6. Myanmar
    7. China
    8. Taiwan
  2. Africa
    1. Algeria
    2. Niger
    3. Libya
    4. Egypt
  3. India – Passes through 8 states
    1. Gujarat
    2. Rajasthan
    3. Madhya Pradesh
    4. Chhatissgarh
    5. Jharkhand
    6. West Bengal
    7. Mizoram
    8. Tripura
  4. Europe
    1. (none)
  5. North America
    1. Mexico
    2. Bahamas
  6. Water Bodies
    1. Atlantic Ocean
    2. Pacific Ocean
    3. Indian Ocean
    4. Red Sea
    5. Arabian Sea
    6. Taiwan Strait

2.1.2 Tropic of Capricorn

  1. Africa
    1. Botswana
    2. Namibia
    3. South Africa
    4. Mozambique
    5. Madagascar
  2. Australia
    1. Australia
  3. South America
    1. Chile
    2. Argentina
    3. Paraguay
    4. Brazil
  4. Water Bodies
    1. Atlantic Ocean
    2. Indian Ocean
    3. Pacific Ocean
    4. Coral Sea

2.1.3 Equator

  1. Africa
    1. Sao Tome and Principe
    2. Gabon
    3. Republic of Congo
    4. Democratic Republic of Congo
    5. Uganda
    6. Kenya
    7. Somalia
  2. Asia
    1. Indonesia
  3. North America
    1. Ecuador
    2. Colombia
    3. Brazil
  4. Water Bodies
    1. Atlantic Ocean
    2. Pacific Ocean
    3. Indian Ocean
    4. Lake Victoria
    5. Karimata Strait
    6. Makassar Strait
    7. Gulf of Tomini
    8. Malacca Sea
    9. Halmahera Sea

3 Economy

3.1 Sustainable development

As given in the report by the Brundtland Commission title Our Common Future:

"meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of the future generation"

3.2 Types of Goods

Type Relation between demand and income/price Example
Normal (Luxury) Goods demand ∝ income  
Inferior Goods demand ∝ 1/income kerosene oil
Ordinary Goods demand ∝ 1/price (follow law of demand) sugar, tea, chicken, etc.
Giffen Goods demand ∝ price (products are cheap) staple foods, Ireland potato famine
Veblen Goods demand ∝ price (products are expensive) goods indicative of status, designer goods, famous works of art

Both Giffen and Veblen goods violate the law of demand.

Merit Goods these goods have positive externalities education, vaccination, socila infrastructure
  in a free market, there is underconsumption  
Demerit goods these goods have negative externalities alcohal, cigarettes, drugs, etc.
  in a free market, there is overconsumption  

3.3 Macroeconomic Growth Indicators

Indicator Formula Meaning
GDP (at market prices) Market value of goods and services for final consumption value of goods and services produced within the territory of a nation
NDP (at market prices) NDP (MP) = GDP (MP) - Depreciation  
GDP (at factor costs) GDP (FC) = GDP (MP) + subsidies - indirect taxes  
NDP (at factor costs) NDP (FC) = NDP (MP) + subsidies - indirect taxes  
GNP (at market prices) GNP (MP) = GDP (MP) + Net Factor Income from abroad value of goods and services produced by the nationals of a nation
NNP (at market prices) NNP (MP) = GNP (MP) - depreciation  
GNP (at factor costs) GNP (FC) = GNP (MP) + subsidies - indirect taxes  
NNP (at factor costs) NNP (FC) = NNP (FC) + subsidies - indirect taxes also known as National Income

Since cost of depreciation varies across nations, it is not used for comparisons or competitive economics. GDP is used for that purpose.

GDP is calculated by Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) of Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI). CSO is the data processing wing of this ministry while NSSO is the data collection wing.

GNP is calculated by World Bank, IMF, etc.

3.3.1 Income of a nation

  1. Nominal Income

    Calculated at current prices, inflation is not considered.

  2. Real income

    refers to National income expressed in terms of level of prices of a particular year taken as base. At present the base year for GDP, IIP, WPI is 2011-12. It is set to be changed to 2017-18 in the coming months.

    GDP Deflator = (nominal income / real income) x 100 - 100

    GDP deflator gives a measure of inflation.

  3. Per capital income

    per capital income = NNP/total population

3.4 Curves

Name of the Curve Relationships Image Shape
Demand curve Demand and prices img: negative/downward slope
Supply Curve Supply and prices img: positive slope
Laffer Curve Tax rate and revenue collected img: inverted parabola
Kuznets Curve Income per capita and Inequality img: inverted parabola
Lorenz Curve Distribution of wealth img:  
Philips Curve Rate of unemployment and rise in wages (later inflation) img:  
Rahn Curve Size of govt and economic performance img:  
Great Gatsby Curve Inequality and intergenerational social mobility / upward sloping line

4 Arts

4.1 Natya Shastra

Natya Shastra by Bharat Muni is a Sanskrit text on performing arts written between 200 BC and 200 AD. It covers dancing, acting, drama, etc.

It gives the concept of rasa in aesthetics:

Name of the Rasa Associated emotion
Shringar Love
Raudra Anger
Hasya Comic
Bhibhats Disgust
Karuna Compassion
Vira Heroism
Bhayanak Fear
Adhbuta Wonder

4.2 8 Classical Dances

The Sangeet Natak Akademi recognizes 8 classical dances

Name of the Dance State Themes Recognition Remarks Instruments
Bharatnatyam Tamil Nadu traditionally associated with ideas of Vaishnavism, Shaktism, Shaivism Fixed upper torso, knees bent, detailed gestures of facial muscles, hands oldest classical dance  
Kathakali Kerala folk mythologies, religious legends, spiritual ideas from epics, puranas elaborate makeup a kind of story play  
Mohiniyattam Kerala   solo, delicate, feminine    
Kuchipudi Andhra Pradhesh, Telangana Krishan-oriented, Vaishanvism-centric     mridangam, cymbals, veena, flute, tanpura
Odissi Odisha Jaggnath (Vaishnavism), Shiva, Surya, Shakti      
Sattriya Assam       khol (asymmetric drum), cymbals, flute
Manipuri Manipur        
Kathak Northern and Western India        

4.3 Semi-classical dances

Some scholars suggest Chhau, Yakshgana and Bhagvata Mela should be added to the list of classical dances. They are sometimes referred to as semi-classical dances.

Name of the Dance State Themes Recognition Remarks Instruments
Chhau Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha spring, shaivism, shaktism, vaishnavism traditionally men only    
Yakshagana Karnataka Ramayana, Mahabharata, Gita      
Bhagvata Mela Tamil Nadu        

5 Punjabi Literature

Writer Notable Works Notable Ideas / Inventions Other Affiliations
Bhai Veer Singh Mere Sayia Jio (sahitya academy award) Father of modern Punjabi literature Khalsa Samachar, Nirguneara
  Rana Surat Singh, Lehra de haar, Matak Hulare, Bijlia de haar    
  Preet Veena, Kamdi Kalai    
Prof Puran Singh Khulle Asmani Rang, Khulle Ghund, Jawaan Punjab De, Puran Nath Jogi Free verse (khulli kavita)  
Prof Mohan Singh Saave Pattar, Chhato di beri, Saida te Sabza, Kasumbhra   Panj Darya – a monthly
Amrita Pritam Kaagaz te Canvas (Gianpeeth)   All India Radio
  Sunehre (Sahitya Academy award)    
  Naagmani, Trinjn    
  Novels – Dr Dev, Pinjar te Aalna    
Harbhajan Singh Na Dhuppe Na Chhave (Sahitya academy award)    
Shiv Kumar Batalvi Loona (sahitya academy award)    

6 Anglo-Sikh Wars

6.1 First Anglo-Sikh War (1845-46)

Lord Hardinge was the Governor-General at the time.

Battle Sikh Leader British Leader Victor
Mudki Lal Singh (PM) Sir Hugh Gough British
Firozpur Tej Singh (C-i-C) & Lal Singh Sir Hugh Gough British
Buddhewal Ranjodh Singh Majithia Sir Henry Smith Sikhs
Aliwal Ranjodh Singh Majithia Sir Henry Smith British
Sabraon Lal Singh, Tej Singh, Sham Singh Attariwala Sir Henry Smith British

6.1.1 Treaty of Lahore

  1. Maharaja Dalip Singh as sovereign of Lahore and his mother Rani Jinda as regent of the king
  2. Indemnity of Rs. 1.5 crore to be paid by Sikhs
  3. Territory between Beas and Satluj (Jullundur Doab) annexed by British, i.e. both banks of Satluj
  4. Jammu and Kashmir handed over to Gulab Singh in lieu of Rs. 1 crore by separate treaty (Treaty of Amritsar 1846)

6.1.2 Treaty of Bhairowal

  1. Rani Jinda removed
  2. Council of Regency comprising 8 Sardars and Sir Henry Lawrence as British resident till the king turned 16.
  3. Stationing of British forces at Lahore (Rs. 22 lakh to be paid by Sikhs)
  4. British troops could pass through Punjab, take and garrison any fort

6.2 Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49)

Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General at that time.

Battle Sikh Leader British Leader Victor
Ramnagar Sher Singh Attariwala Sir Gough Sikhs
Chillianwala Sher Singh Attariwala Sir Gough Sikhs
Multan Mul Raj General Whish British
Gujrat Chatar Singh & Sher Singh Attariwala Sir Gough British

Battle of Chillianwala was the bloodiest battle fought by the British in India. It was a blow to their prestige.

6.2.1 Lord Dalhousie's proclamation 1849

It declared Punjab to be a part of the British Empire in India and disposed of Maharaja Dalip Singh to UK with an annual pension.

7 Rights, Duties, Directives

7.1 Funamental Duties

  • On the recommendations of Swaran Singh Committee, added as Part IV-A (Art 51-A) in 42nd Amendment
  • In 1992 SC allowed reasonable restrictions to Art 14 (equality before law) and Art 19 (six freedoms) to give effect to a fundamental duty
  • Fundamental duties can be enforced by a law passed in the Parliament

7.2 Fundamental Rights & Directive Principles

Fundamental Rights Directive Principles
They are negative – forbid the state from doing something Always positive
They are justiciable, i.e. legally enforceable by courts in case of violation – Do not require legislation for implementation Not legally enforceable – Require legislation for implementation
Aim of establishing political democracy in the country Aim of establishing social and economic democracy
Legal sanction Moral and political sanction
Welfare of individual – personal and individualistic Welare of community – solitarian and socialistic
Law in violation of Fundamental Rights can be declared null and void Law in violation of Directive Principles can't be declared invalid; however, a law can be upheld on the ground that it gives effect to a directive principle

7.3 Important Judgements

Case Verdict
Gokalnath Case 1967 Parliament cannot abrogate Fundamental Rights by amendment
Keshvananda Bharati Case 1973 Power of amendment of parliament is exercisable so far as it doesn't alter the basic structure
Minerva Mills Case 1980 Fundamental rights cannot be abrogated in the name of Directive Priciples (except 39(b), (c)) or otherwise

8 Amendments

Amendment Year Content Articles
24th 1971 Parliament can amend fundamental rights as well as the procedure of amendment 13, 368
25th 1971 DPSP 39(b),(c) have primacy over Fundamental rights 31-C
42nd 1976 DPSP: healthy development of children; free legal aid; workers' participation in management of industry; safeguard forests and wildlife 39, 39-A, 43-A, 48-A
    Fundamental Duties: Art 51-A (Part IV-A) added to the constitution  
44th 1978 DPSP: minimize inequalities 48-A
69th 1991 Delhi NCR  
73rd 1992 Panchayati Raj  
74th 1992 Local Bodies  
86th 2002 Elementary education a fundamental right 21-A

9 Judiciary

9.1 Writs

Name Meaning Issued to Use
Habeas Corpus produce the body public authorities and private citizens Produce a person who has been detained before court
Mandamus We Command a public official/body, corporation, inferior court, tribunal Command issued to perform official duties he/she/it has failed to perform
Prohibition To forbid Judicial and quasi-judicial authority Issued to lower court or tribunal to prevent it from exceeding jurisdiction or usurping jurisdiction it doesn't possess
Certiorari To be certified or informed Judicial, quasi-judicial authority and administrative authorities to transfer a case pending before it to itself or to quash its order in a case, on grounds of excess of jurisdiction or error of law
Quo-warranto By what authority? Substantive public office of a permanent character created by statute/constitution enquire into legality of claim of a person to a public office (prevents illegal usurpation of public office by a person)

9.1.1 Prohibition vs Mandamus

Mandamus Prohibition
Directs towards doing something that has not been done Directs towards not doing something because of lack of jurisdiction

9.1.2 Prohibition vs Certiorari

Prohibition Certiorari
It is only preventive Preventive as well as curative

9.1.3 Quo Warranto

Unlike other 4 writs, this writ can be sought by any interested person rather than by the aggrieved person.

10 Revolutionary Trends

10.1 Phases

Criteria First Phase (1897-1914) Second Phase (1923-47)
Inspiration Italian unification Russian Revolution
Initial fire speeches of extremists started after failure of NCM
Extent Region-specific pan-India
Organisations Abhinav Bharat, Anushilan Samiti Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA)
Participation Religion/Caste specific secular organsiations
Palpability Underground Gradual came out into the open
Publications Yugantar Sandhya
Methods of Suppression Explosive Substances Act 1908,  
  Newspapers Act 1908, 1910,  
  Seditious Meetings Act 1907,  
  Defence of India Rules 1915  
Termination Defence of India Rules 1915  

10.2 Associations

Association Region Founder Associated Persons Adventures Publications
Mitra Mela (later Abhinav Bharat) Maharashtra Mitra and Savarkar Brothers      
Abhinav Bharat Maharashtra Veer Brothers Praful Chakki, Khudiram Bose, Kingsford Assasination attempt  
Anushilan Samiti West Bengal (Dhaka) P. Mitra Aurobindo Ghosh, Barindra Ghosh, Rash Behari Bose    
Jugantar Group West Bengal (Calcutta) Barin Ghosh Jatindranath Mukherjee (Bagha Jatin)    
Ghadar Party HQ in San Francisco Lala Har Dayal Sohan Singh Bhakna, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Harnam Singh 'Tundilat', Kanshi Ram, Bhai Parmanand    
Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) Pan-India (founded in Delhi) Sachindranath Sanyal, Chandrashekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqullah Khan, Rajendra Lahiri, Roshan Singh, Rajguru, Battukeshwar Dutt Kakori Conspiracy The Revolutionary (its manifesto)
        Assembly Bombing  
        Murder of John Saunders  
        Bombing of Viceroys special train  

10.3 HSRA

HSRA was founded in 1923 at a meeting in Feroz Shah Kotla

10.4 Some Related Incidents

Komagatamaru Ship contracted by Baba Gurdit Singh (Guru Nanak Trading Co. Malay) carrying 376 passengers faced abuse at Vancouver, Canada, and at every Port on their way back and finally violent incidents took place at Buj-Buj in West Bengal where some died and several arrested.
Curzon Wylie assassination Madan Lal Dhingra caught and hanged

11 Constitution

11.1 Constitutional Development

Act Landmark Changes Provisions Response
Indian Councils Act 1892 Indirect elections    
Indian Councils Act 1909 Direct elections    
(Minto-Morely Reforms) Separate electorates for muslims    
  Lord S. P. Sinha made member in Executive Council of GG    
Indian Councils Act 1919 Provincial dyarchy (reserved and transfered subjects) 3 Indians made members in executive council of GG  
(Montague-Chelmsford Reforms) Bicameral legislature    
Government of India Act 1935 proposed an All India Federation with consent of princes representing 50% of population of princely states Federal Provisions A car with all brakes and no engine
  idea of collective responsibility bicameral legislature at center  
  Federal Court Federal Court (created in 1937)  
  Federal Bank Federal Bank (RBI Act 1937)  
  Emergency Powers Three lists of subjects – Center, State, Concurrent  
  Concurrent list    
  Supplementary questions Legislative Provisions  
    Members allowed to ask supplementary questions  
  Sindh & Odisha made separate states Bulk of the budget could be voted upon  
  Burma and Aden (Yemen) separated from India    
    Emergency, veto and ordinance-making powers to GG  

11.2 Sources

Provisions Source Country
Rule of Law UK
Legislative Procedure UK
Parliamentary System UK
Parliamentary Privileges UK
Post of Vice President US
Organisation & Powers of Supreme Court US
Fundamental Rights US
Judicial Review US
Federal System Canada, GoI Act 1935
Emergency Provisions Germany, GoI Act 1935
Directive Principles of State Policy Ireland
Fundamental Duties Russia
Concurrent List Australia
Republic France
Constitution Amendment South Africa
Procedure established by law Japan

11.3 Committees of the Constituent Assembly

Committee Chairman Members
Union Constitution Committee Nehru  
Union Procedure Committee Nehru  
Provincial Constitution Committee Sardar Patel  
Steering Committee Rajendra Prasad  
Fundamental Rights Committee J. B. Kriplani  
Minorities sub-committee W. C. Mookherjee  
Business Committee K. M. Munshee  
Drafting Committee B. R. Ambedkar N. Gopalaswami Ayangar, Alladi Krishnaswami Iyer, K. M. Munshi, Sayid Mohd Sadullah, Madhav Rao, Jagat Narain
Linguistic Provinces S. K. Dhar Panna Lal, Jagat Narain
Financial Provisions N. R. Sarkar V. S. Sundaram, V. Rangachari

11.4 Quips & Sobriquets

Laywer's paradise Sir Ivor Jennings
A federation with strong centralising tendencies Sir Ivor Jennings
DPSPs as "Ghosts of the Fabians" Sir Ivor Jennings
cooperative federalism Granville Austin
Strong centre S. C. Kashyap
a case sui generis, a class and type of its own rather than an assemblage of many C. H. Alexandrowicz
bargaining federalism Morris Jones
quasi-federalism K. C. Wheare
unitary state with federal features and not a federal state having unitary features. K. C. Wheare
DPSPs as a "cheque payable by bank as per convenience" K. T. Shah

11.5 Parliamentary & Presidential System

Parliamentary System Presidential System
real executive is the cabinet or ministery president is the chief executive
ministry responsible to legislature and ultimately to the voters president is not responsible to the legislature though they have the power to impeach him
president occupies a position of irresponsibility president is responsible for all executive decisions
doctrine of fusion of executive and legislative powers doctrine of complete separation of powers
(at the same time, in Keshvananda Bharti case the Supreme Court has noted 'separation of powers' as a basic features) doctrine of competence: each wing of the state lives and acts within its respective area without interference with the other

12 Global programmes

Name Agency Aim 2018
REPLACE WHO global elimination of trans fat  
Earth Hour WHO encourage energy conservation March 24

12.1 Earth Hour

  • spread the message of energy conservation and generate awareness by turning off lights for one hour 08:30 to 09:30 on a particular day near the end of March
  • 2018: March 24

13 Important Events in 2018

Name of the Event Location Next Occurence Agenda / Outcome Indian Position
Financial Action Task Force Paris   action-taken reports to be submitted to avoid sanctions  

14 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands 1971

It is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. Ramsar is a city in Iran where this convention was signed in 1971. However, its headquarters are situated within the IUCN headquarters in Gland, Switzerland.

The full name of this treaty is The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat.

The policy-makign organ for this treaty is the Conference of Contracting parties which is held every three years. The last conference was held in 2015 in Uruguay. This year the convention will be held in Dubai (UAE).

Under this treaty, a list of wetlands of international importance is maintained. At present there are 2306 such sites included.

14.1 Wetlands

Under the Ramsar Convention:

  1. wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres
  2. Wetlands may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, and islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six metres at low tide lying within the wetlands

The World Wetland Day is celebrated on 2 February each year. The theme for 2018 was Wetlands for a Sustainable Urban Future.

14.2 Montreaux Record

It is a register of wetlands maintained as part of the Ramsar List that includes those wetland sites of international importance where changes of ecological importance have taken place, are taking place or are likely to take place in the future due to technological developments, pollution, other human activities.

There are 48 such sites at present of which 2 are in India:

SN Site Waterbody Park/Sanctuary/Reserve State Remark/Significance
1 Keoladeo National Park (formerly Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary) freshwater swamp - Rajasthan Also a Natural World Heritage Site; Man-made wetland
2 Loktak Lake freshwater Keibul Lamjao National Park Manipur sangai deer (EN) (Manipur state animal)
          Hoolock gibbons are found
          floating phumdis, decomposing plant material

14.3 Ramsar Sites in India

There are a total of 26 Ramsar sites in India of which 2 fall under Montreaux Record.


SN Site Waterbody Park/Sanctuary/Reserve State Remark/Significance
1 Tso Moriri        
2 Surinsar-Mansar     J & K  
3 Hokera        
4 Wular lake        
5 Pong Dam        
6 Renuka Lake        
7 Chandra Taal        
8 Harike confluence of Satluj, Beas Harike Wildife Sanctuary Punjab Man-made
          important for migratory birds, breeding site
9 Kanjli Kali Bein - Punjab man-made
10 Ropar Satluj - Punjab man-made
          smooth indian otter, sambar, hog deer, pangolin
11 Upper Ganga Ganga (Brijghat to Narora)   Uttar Pradesh gharial
12 Sambhar Lake largest inland salt lake - Rajasthan pink flamingos
13 Keoladeo National Park freshwater - Rajasthan Man-made wetland
  (formerly Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary) swamp     Also a Natural World Heritage Site
14 Deepor Beel freshwater lake - Assam natural stormwater basin for Guwahati
15 Loktak Lake freshwater Keibul Lamjao National Park Manipur sangai deer (EN) (Manipur state animal)
          Hoolock gibbons are found
          floating phumdis, decomposing plant material
16 Rudrasagar freshwater lake - Tripura  
17 Bhoj Wetland 2 lakes – Bhojtal -    
    & Lower Lake      
18 Nalsarovar natural freshwater lake Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary Gujarat indian wild ass
    (relict sea)      
19 East Kolkata Wetland     West Bengal  
20 Bhitarkanika   Bhitarkanika National Park Odisha mangroves
          Olive Ridley Turtles
21 Chilka Lake brackishwater lagoon   Odisha  
22 Kolleru lake   bird sanctuary Andhra Pradesh  
23 Point Calimere   Bird Sanctuary Tamil Nadu last remnants of dry evergreen forest
24 Vembanad Kol     Kerala paddy fields below sea level
25 Sashthamkota Lake freshwater lake   Kerala  
26 Ashtamudi     Kerala  

15 Punjab – Geography & Environment

15.1 Wetlands in Punjab

15.1.1 Wetlands of International Importance

SN Name Waterbody Location Species Remark
1 Harike confluence of Beas and Satluj Tarn Taran   man-made (Harike barrage); also a wildlife sanctuary
2 Kanjli river Bein (tributary of Beas) Kapurthala   man-made (headworks across Bein); first to be declared of international importance
3 Ropar Satluj river Rupnagar   man-made (barrage on Satluj)

15.1.2 Wetlands of National Importance

SN Name Waterbody Location Species Remark
1 Ranjit Sagar Ranjit Sagar lake on Ravi Pathankot   Madhopur headworks on Ravi
2 Nangal Nangal Lake on Satluj Anandpur Sahib   also a wildlife sanctuary

15.1.3 State Wetlands

SN Name Waterbody Location Species Remark
1 Jastarwal   Harsha Chhina block, Ajnala (Amritsar)    
2 Kahnuwan-Chamb   Gurdaspur    
3 Keshopur-Miani   Gurdaspur    
4 Mand-Bharthala   Nawashahr    
5 Dholbaha Reservoir   Hoshiarpur    

15.1.4 Other Wetlands

Besides these there are 11 other identified wetlands in the state.

15.2 Biodiversity Conservation in Punjab

15.2.1 Conservation Reserve

SN Reserve District
1 Rakh Sarai Amanat Khan Conservation Reserve Tarn Taran district

15.2.2 Two Community Reserves

SN Reserve District
1 Keshopur-Chamb Community Reserve Gurdaspur district
2 Lalwan Community Reserve Hoshiarpur district

15.2.3 Wildlife Santuaries

SN Name Location Species
1 Harike Tarn Taran  
2 Takhni-Rehmapur Hoshiarpur  
3 Abohar Fazlika Black Buck
4 Bir Motibagh Patiala  
5 Bir Gurdialpura "  
6 Bir Bhunerheri "  
7 Bir Mehas Nabha (distt Patiala)  
8 Bir Dosanjh "  
9 Bir Bhadson "  
10 Bir Aishwan Sangrur  
11 Jhajjar-Bachauli Rupnagar  
12 Kathlaur Kushlian Pathankot  
13 Nangal Ropar  

15.2.4 Zoological Parks

SN Name Location Species
1 Mahendra Chaudhary Zoological Park (Chhat Bir Zoo) Zirakpur Lions
2 Ludhiana Ludhiana Tiger
3 Mini Zoo (Deer Park, Neelon) Ludhiana  
4 Mini Zoo, Bir Moti Bagh Patiala  
5 Mini Zoo, Bir Talab Bathinda  

Animal Adoption Scheme in all 5 zoos.

15.3 Soils of Punjab

15.3.1 Bet or Khadar Soils (Flood Plains)

These are found along the rivers, streams and choes and are very fertile. They have low organic content and are deep, stratified and wet. They support wheat, paddy, vegetables, sugarcane.

They are found along Satluj, Ravi, Beas, Ghaghar, Bein, etc.

15.3.2 Loamy Soils

These are the most fertile soils in the state, suitable for cultivation of paddy and wheat. They are deep grained, fine and develop under sub-moist and warm temperature.

They are predominantly found in Nawashahr, Nakodar, Kapurthala, Phagwara. In Amritsar and Batala, their fertility has been affected by over-irrigation, choes and rivulets.

15.3.3 Sierozams

They comprise 25% of the soils in the state. These are grey and deficient in organic matter. They are fine grained and loamy. With proper irrigation they produce the highest yield of wheat.

Found in long belts from Mukerian-Tanda, Nakodar-Phillaur, Tarn Taran-Patti, Fatehgarh Sahib, Rajpura.

15.3.4 Kandi soils

They are coarser and rougher soils that are found alongside the Shivaliks. They are dominated by gravel and pebbles.

Found in Gurdaspur, Pathankot, Hoshiarpur, Nawashahr, Ropar.

15.3.5 Sandy soils

Result of semi-arid conditions

poor in NPK, capable of producing cotton, citrus fruits, oilseeds, wheat and other fodder crops.

15.3.6 Desert soils

Result of desert conditions. Poor in NPK, calcerous in nature due to high evaporation. Covered by wind-blown sands.

suitable for cotton, moth, citrus, wheat, bajra, kharif fodder

15.3.7 Podzolic / Forest soils

erosion by running water in rugged topography. Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Pathankot, Nawashahr, Ropar.

15.3.8 Sodic and Saline

along Bikaner land in Abohar, Bathinda. High sodium content and stron alkaline nature.

15.4 Rivers of Punjab

15.4.1 Perennial

Name Ancient Name Greek Name Dams Head Mouth Tributaries
Jhelum Vitasta Hydapses Mangla Dam, Uri Dam, Kishanganga Dam Verinag Spring Chenab Lidder, Neelam, Sindh
Chenab Chandrabagh, Iskamati Acesinas Baglihar Bara Lachha pass Panjnad Marusadar
Ravi Purushini, Irawati Hydraotes Ranjit Sagar, Chamera, Shahpur Kandi (under construction) Chamba District Chenab Ujh, Siul
Beas Vipas, Arjiki Hyphasis Pong, Pandoh Beas Kund, Rohtang Pass (Kullu District) Satluj at Harike Bein
Satluj Shatadru, Satlutri Heisdros Bhakra-Nangal, Karcham Wangtoo, Nathpa Jhakhri Langqên Zangbo (near Lake Rakshastal), Tibet Panjnad Spiti, Beas; Baspa
Indus Sindhu Indos Mansarovar Lake Arabian Sea (primary), Rann of Kachh (secondary) Ravi, Beas, Satluj, Jhelum, Chenab, Ghaghar Hakra, Zaskar, Suru, Soan, Luni; Shyok, Hunza, Gilgit, Swat, Kunar, Kabul, Kurram, Gomal, Zhob  
Kali Bein       spring in Dhanoa (Hoshiarpur) Beas Chhoti Bein

15.4.2 Ephemeral

Name Ancient Name Greek Name Dams Head Mouth Tributaries
Ghaggar-Hakra     Ottu Barrage (Harayana), Kaushalya Dam shivalik hills ottu barrage Kasuhalya
(called Ghaggar in India, Hakra in Pakistan (now dried)            

Author: likeaflower

Created: 2018-07-17 Tue 21:50

Emacs 24.5.1 (Org mode 8.2.10)